This has been a fun little journey. What started out as look at me i can WSPR on one band, is not looking like, look at me I can WSPR on 5 bands. So what we have here is the 3 band WSPR TX that does 20, 15 and 10m and with an extra PA board and a little bit of code i can add 80 and 40m into the mix also, all this from just 2 antenna.
Here is the schematic for the PA board, less the power supplies. It requires 7V for the fets and 3.3V for the bias. The 10K pots and 3.3v bias supply allow for really fine changes in bias voltage. If memory serves me correct, 600mV was enough to run the fets at about 400mA draw each. The fets themselves are for VHF to GHZ range, so running them at HF is not ideal but its all about what you can find. These are 50 cent parts and what is used in many dual band HT’s as their 5w PA. The fact that I am getting 5w out at HF is rather nice.
Here is the PA board sitting in the box I made for the never ending story transceiver LOL. Note the 5A buck converter being used for the 7V power supply.
Here is a more broad view of how things are looking. 2w out using the old LPF board that was more loss than pass. Built new filters and things are now much better.
Fresh built LPF board without the losses of the old board means I am not wasting 1/2 the power in the filters. I was always going to be happy with a couple of watts, but the fact its making 5w, is nice. Note the heatsink stuck to the back of the PA board. A tone of vias are uses to wick the heat away from the fets and into the heatsink. Its been running for 24 hours straight and temps have remained steady around 50deg C.
Close enough to call that 5w. Its a little less on 20m, more like 4. But that is ok.
And finally, no spots on 15 or 10m, that is to be expected, but we have a number of spots on 20m. So i am calling this a success. Learned a bunch thought this project and the outcome was better than I expected.
How good are those inductors you just wound? What about those inductors you just bought from your favorite online store? Don’t know? Well knowing the Q of the part is going to help you know whether they are going to be useful in that bandpass filter or oscillator and it could not be simpler if you have a nanoVNA.
So what I have here is a T68-6 toriod with 19 turns of enamel wire on it. 19 turns gives a theoretical inductance of 1.7uH, the actual measured inductance with my cheap LCR meter is 1.747uh yeah that is surprisingly close and not something that I typically find that happens. Usually 1 or 2 turns either way is required to get to the value I want.
For this measurement you want the inductor to be in series. So you can see from the picture above my test jig the inductor goes from the center conductor to the shield of the coax.
So the most important part is how to make the measurement. First is to re-calibrate the nanoVNA for the frequency range of interest for the part. For me, Captain HF, 3 to 30Mhz is where I keep a saved calibration for. Next, the measurement is an S11 1 port measurement and the plot you require is R+jX.
So from here the math is rather simple, Q = X / Rseries for the frequency of interest. So for the above at 14Mhz, for simplicity sake lets call it Q = 200 / 1 || Q = 200. In reality the Rs is less than 1 and the X is less than 200, but thankfully NanoVnaSaver does the actual calculations for you and displays them in this case the actual Q was 150. Which is pretty damn good for a hand wound toriod inductor. Now the good thing is, you know how to measure Q and you can start checking all sorts of parts you might have sitting around.
Take these cheap ebay variable inductors as an example. I built a filter with them for 40m and it was crap. Q at 7Mhz was about 20. But at 14Mhz though to 150Mhz the Q was about 50 to 75 on average. So they would be useful to use at higher frequencies and certainly not useful at lower ones. Unless you have a datasheet that tells you what the Q is for a given frequency range is, you will never know unless you measure them.
And lets face it, measurement is king. Even a non perfect measurement with a non perfect instument like the nanVNA is vastly superior to having no measurement at all. Oh and one last nugget, now that you know the Q of your actual parts, you can then use that value in Eslie when designing filters. Being able to measure things can really improve everything you do.
I dont remember ordering these transistors, but they are cheap, i have 100 of them and so i mounted one up on a test fixture to see what it could do. To my delight, I was seeing 1.5w out and I am thinking I hit the jackpot. I can push pull these as a predriver stage and its not going to cost much for a good amount of power.
A couple hours later, I noticed the scope probe was on 1x and the scope on 10x. My super awesome power just vanished out the window. Its still a good transistor, reasonable gain for small signal stuff, good enough bandwidth to be useful for most the HF bands of interest. Its just now a power house HAHA.
Oh well. It is what it is 🙂